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The prevalence of smoking among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other substance use disorders is alarmingly high, and long-term success rates of smoking cessation interventions in this group are low. One way to improve treatment efficacy for this population is through a more comprehensive understanding of individual- and treatment-level variables that affect the motivation to quit as well as the outcomes of smoking cessation attempts. In this paper, we review the relevant research on factors that may influence readiness to quit and the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in this population and highlight gaps in the knowledge base that require further investigation.We conducted a review of the literature on smoking among adults with AUD in order to examine predictors of motivation to quit smoking and outcome of cessation attempts.No consistent predictors of motivation for smoking cessation were identified. Although the results were not unanimous, a greater length of abstinence from alcohol and other substances predicted smoking cessation success.Empirical work identifying factors associated with the motivation and ability to quit smoking among individuals with AUD is in its early stages. Mixed results and a dearth of research in this area prohibit strong conclusions from being made. Future researchers are encouraged to consider alternative methods of conceptualizing and measuring motivations to quiin this group and to routinely include analyses that examine predictors of outcome in intervention studies.