PERCEIVED PARENTING STYLES AND TOBACCO, ALCOHOL AND CANNABIS USE AMONG FRENCH ADOLESCENTS: GENDER AND FAMILY STRUCTURE DIFFERENTIALS
To assess associations between parental control or parental emotional support and current tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use among 12–18-year-old students, according to gender and family structure (intact family, reconstituted family, single-parent family).Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a national representative sample in France (2003) of 6-12th grade students (N=16 532), as a part of the ESPAD study (European Study Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs). The self-administered questionnaire included questions on last 30 days' consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis as well as on socio-demographic characteristics, school characteristics, and some simple questions on parental control and parental emotional support. Logistic modelling was carried out and (adjusted Odds Ratio) Ora calculated, adjusted for age, parental educational and characteristics of the school.Results
A negative relationship exists between parental control and substance use, but this relationship is more marked for tobacco (OR a between 1.8 and 5.6 according to level of control, family status and gender) and cannabis (OR between 1.5 and 6.4) than for alcohol (OR a between 1.0 and 2.7). Parental control is more markedly related to substance use in girls than in boys. These tendencies were observed for intact families as well as for single-parent families or reconstituted families. Parental control has a greater impact than emotional support. Among girls, emotional support has a greater impact than among boys.Conclusions
There is a gradient relationship between parental control and current consumption, especially among girls. Thus, there may be a need for parental control, whatever the family structure.