Molecular mechanisms underlying gingival and periodontal inflammation caused by dental alloys are still poorly understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that tissue transglutaminase can be involved in inflammatory cell response. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of exposure to orthodontic materials on transglutaminase in cultured human gingival fibroblasts. The incubation with Ni-Ti heat-activated (T3) or Ni-Ti super-elastic (T4), and with Ni-Cr-Co (T2) alloys produced respectively 2.5-fold and 8-fold increases in IL-6 release compared with control cultures. Transglutaminase activity was significantly increased in cells exposed to T3 and T4 alloys (about 170% of control; p < 0.05), where it was mainly localized close to inner part of cell membrane. The exposure to T3 and T4 specimens significantly up-regulated also tTG expression compared with control cultures. These data first show an association between IL-6 release and tissue transglutaminase increases, suggesting that TGase-mediated reactions may play a major role in periodontal inflammation.