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Twenty-five percent of the adult population needs treatment to reduce elevated cholesterol levels. A national educational effort spearheaded by the National Cholesterol Education Program requires the support and active participation of health professionals, especially nurses and nurse practitioners, if it is to be effective. The NCEP Adult Treatment Panel recently established guidelines for treating high blood cholesterol in adults. Nurse practitioners in clinic, office, worksite, and community health settings are positioned ideally to implement these guidelines through cholesterol screening, monitoring, and management of hyperlipidemia.