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In the health care setting, knowledge of communicable diseases is critical in the prevention of transmission. Communicable diseases transmitted by the respiratory route pose several difficult problems for control. One such disease, frequently overlooked in adults, because it is considered a childhood disease, is varicella zoster (chickenpox). Recognition of the disease and knowledge about its epidemiology, control, treatment, and follow-up care are necessary for the health care provider to prevent the spread of disease.