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To heighten the awareness of primary care clinicians regarding the prevalence, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in the primary care setting.Selected research, clinical guidelines, research and clinically based articles from current scien-tific literature, and current medical textbooks.Celiac disease is commonly under diagnosed or misdiagnosed. Until recently, it was considered rare in the United States. New data indicate that 1:150 Americans are affected and demonstrate the protective effects of early diagnosis and treatment.Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of CD increase the risk of early mortality, associated autoimmune disease, neurologic complica-tions, gastrointestinal malignancy, and fetal growth retardation, where pregnancy precedes diagnosis. Primary care clinicians must culti-vate a high index of suspicion for CD in the primary care setting and bear it in mind as a differential diagnosis in many clinical situations.