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To review the pathophysiology of osteoporosis and describe vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, which are minimally invasive procedures to treat the pain associated with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs).Extensive literature review of osteoporosis, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty supplemented by case study and clinical experience in the minimally invasive interventional neuroradiology interventions.Osteoporosis is a progressive debilitating process that destroys the cancellous bone, weakening the overall integrity and stability of the bone. The loss of bone mass places the individual at increased risk for vertebral body, hip, and wrist fractures. In the past, there was no treatment option to repair vertebral body deformity or instability after osteoporotic VCFs. Management solely relied on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, narcotics, muscle relaxants, and/or orthotic bracing to provide pain relief. VCFs alter the stability of the vertebral body and column, and the lack of stabilization can lead to chronic pain syndrome, immobility, pulmonary compromise, progression of spinal deformity, increase in the risk for additional VCFs, and increase in the risk for comorbidities and mortality related to immobility.Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive procedures aimed at pain control, stabilization of the vertebral body, and with kyphoplasty, the ability to provide some correction of deformity with partial restoration of vertebral body height. Providing pain control and stabilization of the vertebral column improves mobility, thus decreasing the potential risks associated with immobility.