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Graduated responsibility for residents in anatomic pathology has been the subject of discussion among supervising staff and residents during the past few years. Presently a wide variation exists within pathology residency programs in the United States both in the degree of autonomy given to residents and in the areas of anatomic pathology (ie, surgical pathology, cytopathology, and autopsy pathology) within which the autonomy is granted. Recent surveys of supervising staff and residents have indicated a willingness to increase the level of independence for residents, especially at senior levels. Impediments include reimbursement, credentialing, and medicolegal issues. The results of the ASCP-Resident Physician Section (RPS) surveys pertaining to graduated responsibility for residents in anatomic pathology are discussed.