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Outcome and anticoagulation intensity was evaluated during 121 patient years of oral anticoagulant therapy monitored with the prothrombin-proconvertin clotting time (PP, also known as P&P). The PP-based international normalized ratio (INR; PP-INR) correlated well with the INR calculated from the prothrombin clotting time (PT; r = 0.92), and results were almost identical over a wide range after linear conversion (1/INR). When the PP-INR was 4.5 or less, the risk of major bleeding was 1 for every 118 treatment years, but it was 1 for every 73 days when the INR was 6 or more. The 1/PP-INR correlated better with factor II coagulant activity (r = 0.85) than did the 1/PT-INR (r = 0.78). The 1/PP-INR also correlated better with the native prothrombin antigen (r = 0.76) than did the 1/PT-INR (r = 0.68). The PP and PT results correlated better with factor II coagulant activity than with native prothrombin antigen. Thus, the PP clotting time results can be accurately converted to INR. The results also suggest that the PP may have advantages over the PT as an indicator of anticoagulation intensity during oral anticoagulation.