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The distinction between mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and other low-grade B-cell neoplasms is important because MCL has a more aggressive clinical course. In bone marrow biopsy specimens, this distinction can be especially difficult. We examined 70 bone marrow biopsy specimens involved by various B-cell lymphoid neoplasms to assess the utility of cyclin D1 immunostaining in distinguishing MCL from other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. We used a cocktail of two monoclonal anti–cyclin D1 antibodies and a heat- and sonication- induced epitope retrieval procedure. The neoplasms assessed included MCL (32 cases), small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (18 cases), follicular lymphoma (11 cases), hairy cell leukemia (5 cases), splenic marginal zone lymphoma (2 cases), and small lymphocytic lymphoma with plasmacytoid differentiation (2 cases). The diagnosis of MCL in bone marrow was confirmed by review of the original diagnostic biopsy specimens along with additional data, such as immunophenotypic or molecular studies. Most MCL (23/32; 72%) cases expressed cyclin D1 protein. In contrast, one case of small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1/18; 6%) and one case of hairy cell leukemia (1/5; 20%) expressed cyclin D1 protein. These findings demonstrate that immunostaining for cyclin D1 protein expression is useful in distinguishing MCL from other B-cell lymphoid neoplasms in the bone marrow.