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The majority of patients with aplastic anemia (AA) have an idiopathic form of the disease. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) assays in the bone marrow biopsy samples from 30 patients with idiopathic AA. Serologic assays for parvovirus B19 were based on indirect antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results indicate that neither parvovirus B19 DNA nor MTB DNA could be demonstrated in any of the bone marrow samples by N-PCR. Moreover, IgM antibody against parvovirus B19 also was undetectable in the serum samples of 17 patients. Thus, our results suggest that parvovirus B19 and MTB are not associated with AA and, consequently, do not have a role in the pathogenesis of this disease.