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The point mutation 1849 (G→T) V617F in the JAK2 gene occurs at high frequency in several chronic myeloproliferative diseases. Although a number of V617F mutation detection methods have been described, few are readily implemented in a diagnostic setting. We developed a simple and sensitive allele-specific competitive blocker polymerase chain reaction (ACB-PCR) assay to detect the V617F mutation. DNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood samples of 26 patients with chronic myeloproliferative disease. The ACB-PCR limit of detection was 1%. All positive samples detected by sequencing were detected by ACB-PCR. In 3 patients with essential thrombocythemia, the V617F mutation was readily detected by ACB-PCR but was near the detection limit of sequencing, confirming that ACB-PCR is more effective at detecting V617F when the mutant cell population is low. Detection of the monomorphic JAK2 V617F mutation using the ACB-PCR assay is easy to perform, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective, which are key features of an ideal diagnostic method.