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Detection of cytogenetic abnormalities requires successful culture of the clonal population to obtain metaphase chromosomes for study, and as such, has been hampered by low mitotic indices of mature B cells in culture. Our study presents data on the improved abnormality detection rate with the use of a CpG-oligonucleotide/interleukin 2 (OL/IL-2) culture protocol for mature B-cell neoplasms, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-CLL specimens. The increased detection rate of abnormalities, compared with unstimulated culture and traditional pokeweed mitogen culture, was statistically significant for both CLL and non-CLL neoplasms. For CLL specimens, our data also showed that for cytogenetically visible aberrations, OL/IL-2 was as, if not more, sensitive than detection with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Use of OL/IL-2 allowed a number of abnormalities to be detected, which were not covered by specific iFISH panels, especially balanced translocations. Therefore, OL/IL-2 stimulation improves diagnostic sensitivity and increases discovery rate of novel prognostic findings.