Endometrial Carcinoma:  Role of Current and Emerging Biomarkers in Resolving Persistent Clinical Dilemmas

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Objectives: Type II and other high-grade endometrial carcinomas may challenge conventional treatment due to recurrence and metastatic spread and therefore are a persistent clinical dilemma. Effective targeted therapy for these is a goal for clinicians and researchers alike.Methods: An extensive review of the literature has been performed for obtaining an in-depth understanding of the clinicopathological characteristics, etiologic factors, and molecular profile of these subsets of endometrial carcinoma. Progress made with current and emerging biomarkers for prognosis assessment and therapeutic targeting has been summarized.Results: There has been a significant increase in research on potential biomarkers of endometrial cancer, and beneficial targeted therapies have been identified.Conclusions: Clinical trials are leading the charge for substantial gains toward personalized treatment of aggressive endometrial carcinoma subtypes.

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