Backrest Elevation and Tissue Interface Pressure by Anatomical Location During Mechanical Ventilation

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BackgroundBackrest elevations less than 30° are recommended to reduce pressure ulcers, but positions greater than 30° are recommended during mechanical ventilation to reduce risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Interface pressure may vary with level of backrest elevation and anatomical location (eg, sacrum, heels).ObjectiveTo describe backrest elevation and anatomical location and intensity of skin pressure across the body in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.MethodsIn a longitudinal study, patients from 3 adult intensive care units in a single institution receiving mechanical ventilation were enrolled within 24 hours of intubation from February 2010 through May 2012. Backrest elevation (by inclinometer) and pressure (by a pressure-mapping system) were measured continuously for 72 hours. Mean tissue interface pressure was determined for 7 anatomical areas: left and right scapula, left and right trochanter, sacrum, and left and right heel.ResultsData on 133 patients were analyzed. For each 1° increase in backrest elevation, mean interface pressure decreased 0.09 to 0.42 mm Hg. For each unit increase in body mass index, mean trochanter pressure increased 0.22 to 0.24 mm Hg. Knee angle (lower extremity bent at the knee) and mobility were time-varying covariates in models of the relationship between backrest elevation and tissue interface pressure.ConclusionsIndividual factors such as patient movement and body mass index may be important elements related to risk for pressure ulcers and ventilator-associated pneumonia, and a more nuanced approach in which positioning decisions are tailored to optimize outcomes for individual patients appears warranted.

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