A Case of H Syndrome Showing Immunophenotye Similarities to Rosai–Dorfman Disease

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H syndrome (OMIM 612391) is a recently described autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by indurated, hyperpigmented, and hypertrichotic skin and systemic manifestations including hepatosplenomegaly, cardiac anomalies, hearing loss, hypogonadism, low height, hypertriglyceridemia, hallux valgus, and flexion contractures. H syndrome results from mutations in the SLC29A3 gene, which encodes the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter hENT3. The cutaneous histopathology is characterized by a striking mononuclear cell infiltrate in the dermis consisting of CD68+ monocyte-derived cells and CD34+ and factor XIIIa+ dendrocytes. We describe a case of H syndrome in which the infiltrating mononuclear cells were CD68+, CD163+, S-100+, and CD1a−, thus simulating the immunophenotype observed in Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD). The immunostaining for CD21, fascin, and CD34 were negative, and there were also many factor XIIIa+ dendrocytes interspersed within the dense mononuclear cell infiltrate. Recent findings of biallelic mutations in SLC29A3 in 2 families reported to have familial RDD and in a kindred with Faisalabad histiocytosis (OMIM 602782), which is an autosomal inherited form of histiocytosis with similarities to RDD, may explain the RDD-like immunophenotype in our H syndrome case.

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