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Shenfu injection (SFI) promotes tissue microcirculation and oxygen metabolism. We aimed to assess its effects on intestinal epithelial damage in septic rats.Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation (Sham), sepsis (cecal ligation and puncture [CLP]), and SFI (low-dose, middle-dose, high-dose) groups (n = 10). For Sham animals, the abdominal cavity was opened and closed. For other groups, severe sepsis was induced by CLP. After surgery, saline (Sham and CLP rats) and SFI (treatment groups) were administered intraperitoneally. Samples were collected 12 hours after injection. Serum tumor necrosis factor α, diamineoxidase, and d-lactate levels and ileal mucosal damage and ultrastructural change, as well as protein and messenger RNA expression of tight junction markers, including Claudin-3 and zonula occludens protein-1 in ileal mucosa's epithelial cells, were assessed. All animal experiments were carried out under aseptic conditions.Compared with Sham animals, serum tumor necrosis factor α, DAO, and d-lactic acid levels in CLP animals were significantly higher; the ileal mucosal damage was more severe; and the expression levels of tight junction markers were significantly decreased. These indexes were significantly improved in SFI groups, in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with CLP rats. Sham animals displayed orderly arranged ileal mucosal villi, continuous tight junctions between epithelial cells, intact organelles, and microvilli. Compared with CLP animals (with obvious damage in these structures), an overt improvement was observed in SFI groups, especially in the high-dose SFI group, with tight junctions clearly visible between epithelial cells.Shenfu injection significantly alleviates intestinal epithelial damage in septic rats, in a dose-dependent manner.