Management of spontaneous soft-tissue hemorrhage secondary to anticoagulant therapy: A cohort study

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Study objective:The optimal management of patients receiving heparin, warfarin or direct anti-coagulant therapy who experience spontaneous, severe, life-threatening soft-tissue hemorrhage (SSTH) is unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate efficacy and safety of the interventional protocol implemented in our department.Methods:In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 80 consecutive patients with SSTH secondary to anticoagulation therapy diagnosed by the appropriate computed tomography scan. All patients received a structured clinical pathway, including aggressive resuscitation, reversal of coagulopathy when indicated, Interventional Radiology procedures by transcatheter embolization (TE), clinical observation and repeated laboratory controls.Results:We enrolled 80 patients from 2013 to 2017. Angiography was performed in 60 patients (75%). It revealed the bleeding site in 46 cases, and a TE was performed in all. The rates of technical success of TE, primary clinical success and bleeding control were 98% (45/46), 91% (73/80) and 89% (71/80) respectively. In 5 patients (6%) the control of the bleeding was obtained with a second TE. Short-term and 30-day mortality was 5% (4 patients) and 11% (9 patients), respectively. No adverse events were observed.Conclusion:A structured clinical pathway, including TE seems to be an effective and safe method to manage the patients with SSTH due to anticoagulant treatment.

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