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We retrospectively analyzed 449 patients with AML under the WHO classification of AML 2008 and probed implications of this classification in diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) among them. The clinical presentations, biological features, treatments, and prognosis of patients diagnosed with AML-MRC were analyzed and compared with those of AML not otherwise specified (AML-NOS). In all patients, 115 (25.6%) were diagnosed as AML-MRC including 64 males and 51 females with median onset age of 48 years (range from 17 to 78). Their complete remission (CR) rate was 60.9% and relapse rate was 57.1%. The observed median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 10 and 5 months, respectively, which was significantly shorter than those of AML-NOS patients (P < 0.05). The prognosis of AML-MRC patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related cytogenetics sole was similar to those with history of MDS or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN). Patients with MDS-related cytogenetic abnormalities and/or history of MDS or MDS/MPN predisposed significantly shortened CR, OS, and DFS than AML-MRC patients with only multilineage dysplasia (MLD) and AML-NOS patients (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that age, cytogenetics, and history of MDS or MDS/MPN were independent prognostic factors. Patient diagnosed as AML-MRC presented distinctive clinical and biological features. Presence of MLD does not change the prognosis. Am. J. Hematol. 89:874–881, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.