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Hematopoietic syndrome of acute radiation syndrome (HSARS) is a life-threatening condition with no approved treatment. We compared recombinant human interleukin-12 (rHuIL-12; 175 ng/kg × 1) with vehicle, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 10 μg/kg/day × 18), or rHuIL-12+G-CSF after lethal irradiation in rhesus monkeys in a Good Laboratory Practice, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study. Fluids, antibiotics, and blood products were not used. Survival at day 60 was significantly increased for rHuIL-12 versus G-CSF or vehicle. rHuIL-12/G-CSF combination provided no additional survival benefit over rHuIL-12. Both rHuIL-12 and rHuIL-12+G-CSF increased blood cell nadirs, induced earlier recovery of all hematopoietic lineages, and significantly decreased frequencies of severe cytopenias versus vehicle or G-CSF. In bone marrow, rHuIL-12 alone increased erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocyte counts relative to vehicle or G-CSF. Thus, a single injection of rHuIL-12, without supportive medical intervention, significantly improved survival and promoted multilineage hematopoietic recovery in a nonhuman primate model of HSARS. Am. J. Hematol. 89:868–873, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.