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An increasing number of arterial function assessments are available, including small and large arterial elasticity (SAE/C2, LAE/C1), endothelial function as measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT), ankle brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We have consecutively performed these measures in subjects with low and high vascular disease risks to assess the interrelationships.Twenty healthy subjects (HS) and 20 older subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were studied with all techniques at a single sitting by a single operator. In HS, C2 correlated with FMD (R = 0.577, P = .008), PWV (R = 0.522, P = .046), and ABI (R = 0.463, P = .04). There was no significant correlation of C1 and FMD or blood pressure (BP) measurements. In DM, C2 correlated with FMD (R = 0.443, P = .05), systolic BP (R = −0.553, P = .01), PP (R = −0.601, P = .005), and systemic vascular resistance (R = −0.577, P = .008). There was no significant correlation between anthropometric measures and arterial function measures in either group. The IMT was not correlated with any measure of arterial function in either group.C2 assessed by pulse wave analysis correlated with endothelial function measured by FMD in young apparently healthy subjects and older subjects with type 2 diabetes. Systolic BP and PP correlated with C2 and FMD in older diabetic subjects but not healthy subjects. The interrelationships between arterial function measures are different in high and low risk populations. This variability needs to be considered when applying these techniques to individuals in different populations.