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The objective of this article is to examine the factors associated with differences in access to income replacement benefits for workers experiencing a workrelated injury or illness of 1-week or longer in the Canadian labor force.This study utilized data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, a representative longitudinal survey conducted by Statistics Canada. A total of 3,352 workrelated absences were identified. Logistic regression models examined factors at the individual, occupational, and geographic level that were associated with the probability of receiving compensation.The probability of not receiving employer or workers’ compensation benefits was higher among women, immigrants in their first 10 years in Canada, younger workers, respondents who were in their first year of a job, those who were not members of a union or collective bargaining agreement, and part-time workers.More research is required to understand why almost 50% of respondents with 1-week or longer work-related absences did not report receiving workers’ compensation payments following their absence. More importantly, research is required to understand why particular groups of workers are more likely to be excluded from any type of compensation for lost earnings after a work-related injury and illness in Canada.