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This review summarizes peer-reviewed studies examining cancer risks among police officers. It provides an overview of existing research limitations and uncertainties and the plausible etiologic risk factors associated with cancer in this understudied occupation.Previous cancer studies among police officers were obtained via a systematic review of the MEDLINE, CABDirect, and Web of Science bibliographic databases.Quality observational studies of cancer among police officers are sparse and subject to limitations in exposure assessment and other methods. Results from three studies suggested possible increased mortality risks for all cancers, and cancers of the colon, kidney, digestive system, esophagus, male breast, and testis, as well as Hodgkin's disease. Few incidence studies have been performed, and results have been mixed, although some associations with police work have been observed for thyroid, skin, and male breast cancer.Police are exposed to a mix of known or suspected agents or activities that increase cancer risk. Epidemiologic evidence to date is sparse and inconsistent. There is a critical need for more research to understand the biological and social processes underlying exposures and the suggested disproportionate risks and to identify effective prevention strategies.