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This study examined the relationship between work-related injuries and health outcomes among a cohort of blue-collar construction workers.Data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (NLSY79; n = 12,686). A range of health outcomes among blue-collar construction workers (n = 1,435) were measured when they turned age 40 (1998–2006) and stratified by these workers' prior work-related injury status between 1988 and 2000. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to measure differences among subgroups.About 38% of the construction cohort reported injuries resulting in days away from work (DAFW); another 15% were injured but reported no DAFW (NDAFW). At age 40, an average of 10 years after injury, those with DAFW injury had worse self-reported general health and mental health, and more diagnosed conditions and functional limitations than those without injury. This difference was statistically significant after controlling for major demographics.Adverse health effects from occupational injury among construction workers persist longer than previously documented. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:308–318, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.