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This systematic review aimed to describe the burden and risk factors of work-related traumatic brain injury (wrTBI) and evaluate methodological quality of existing literature on wrTBI.A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL) was conducted to identify articles published between 1980 and 2013 using a combination of terms for work, TBI, and epidemiology, without geographical limitations.Ninety-eight studies were included in this review, of which 24 specifically focused on wrTBI. In general, male workers, those in the youngest and oldest age groups, and those working in the primary (e.g., agriculture, forestry, mining) or construction industries were more likely to sustain wrTBI, with falls being the most common mechanism of injury.This review identified workers at highest risk of wrTBI, with implications for prevention efforts. Future research of better methodological quality is needed to provide a more complete picture of the epidemiology of wrTBI. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:353–377, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.