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Occupational exposures, including those to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), are suspected risk factors for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN).We investigated occupational exposures and MPN risk (54 cases and 472 controls) in a population–based case-control study in three rural Pennsylvania counties. Occupational histories, coded to SIC/SOC 1980, were linked to a previously created PAH job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios for industry (17 categories), occupation (26 categories), and PAH exposure were adjusted using logistic regression.No industries or occupations were strongly or consistently associated with increased MPN risk. Analysis of employment duration found that being employed for 5 or more years in transportation, communications, and other public utilities was associated with MPN risk. There was no indication of an association with cumulative PAH exposure.These few associations did not appear to have a common exposure. This exploratory study does not support the hypothesis that occupational exposure, including PAH, are strong risk factors for MPNs. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:595–604, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.