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To describe OH&S vulnerability across a diverse sample of Canadian workers.A survey was administered to 1,835 workers employed more than 15 hrs/week in workplaces with at least five employees. Adjusted logistic models were fitted for three specific and one overall measure of workplace vulnerability developed based on hazard exposure and access to protective OH&S policies and procedures, awareness of employment rights and responsibilities, and workplace empowerment.More than one third of the sample experienced some OH&S vulnerability. The type and magnitude of vulnerability varied by labor market sub-group. Younger workers and those in smaller workplaces experienced significantly higher odds of multiple types of vulnerability. Temporary workers reported elevated odds of overall, awareness- and empowerment-related vulnerability, while respondents born outside of Canada had significantly higher odds of awareness vulnerability.Knowing how labor market sub-groups experience different types of vulnerability can inform better-tailored primary prevention interventions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:119–128, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.