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Some previous studies have suggested that exposure to engine exhausts may increase risk of breast cancer.In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Western Australia we assessed occupational exposure to engine exhausts using questionnaires and telephone interviews. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression.We found no association between risk of breast cancer and occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (OR 1.07, 95%CI: 0.81–1.41), gasoline exhaust (OR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.74–1.28), or other exhausts (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 0.29–4.08). There were also no significant dose- or duration-response relationships.This study did not find evidence supporting the association between occupational exposures to engine exhausts and breast cancer risk. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:437–444, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.