Fairness Is Not Validity or Cultural Bias in Racial-Group Assessment: A Quantitative Perspective

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When test scores that differ by racial groups are used for assessment purposes, resulting decisions regarding members of the lower scoring group are potentially unfair. Fairness is defined as the removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization, and it is differentiated from test-score validity and cultural bias. Two fairness models for identifying, quantifying, and removing from test scores construct-irrelevant variance attributable to racial or cultural psychological attributes are presented.

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