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Interleukin (IL)-5 is thought to play an important role in asthmatic bronchial mucosal inflammation and is a potential therapeutic target. To investigate the effect of IL-5 on the infiltration of eosinophils in airway in vivo, we compared eosinophil counts and their activation status in airways without and after the topical instillation of recombinant human IL-5. Eight subjects with mild atopic asthma underwent initial bronchoscopy during which control bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as bronchial mucosa were obtained, and at the same time, normal saline and IL-5 were administered to two sublobar segments separately. The second bronchoscopy were carried out and samples from challenged sites were taken 24 h later. It was found that the total eosinophils (BMK-13+ cells) and the activated eosinophils (EG2+ cells) in bronchial mucosa, the eosinophil numbers in BAL fluid, as well as eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in BAL fluid from saline-challenged segments were not different from those in unchallenged segments. However, a significant eosinophilia was observed in bronchial mucosa and BAL fluid from IL-5-challenged sites. Eosinophil activation, as assessed by secretion of ECP, was also increased significantly in bronchial mucosa and BAL fluid. The results strongly suggested that IL-5 is capable of inducing eosinophil infiltration into the asthmatic airways, as well as the activation of infiltrating eosinophils.