|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) are among the important mediators in the pathogenesis of lung diseases in which tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a pivotal role. However, the effects of ROIs on the TNF- TNF receptor system remain unclear. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on the shedding of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF-R) were investigated in a pulmonary epithelial cell line (A549) using enzyme-linked immunoassay. A549 cells spontaneously released type I sTNF-R (sTNF-RI) into the culture medium. Hydrogen peroxide accelerated the release of sTNF-RI from the A549 cells time- and dose- dependently. Stimulated release of sTNF-RI by hydrogen peroxide or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was inhibited by pretreatment with the intracellular hydroxyl radical scavengers dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl thiourea. A synthetic metalloproteinase inhibitor (KB-R8301) inhibited not only spontaneous release of sTNF-RI but also shedding enhanced by hydrogen peroxide and PMA. Preincubation with a protein kinase C inhibitor, calphostin C, downregulated the hydrogen peroxide- or PMA-induced shedding of sTNF-RI. Neither genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nor H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited shedding of sTNF-RI by hydrogen peroxide and PMA. Although the surface expression of TNF-R assessed by 125I-TNF specific binding was decreased in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or PMA, TNF-RI mRNA transcript levels remained unchanged. These results show that hydrogen peroxide is involved in the activation of metalloproteinase and protein kinase C responsible for the shedding of sTNF-RI. Accordingly, ROIs may alter TNF action by enhanced shedding of sTNF-RI and reducing its surface receptor expression.