Effects of Zingiber officinale on the Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Lung Penetrations of Ciprofloxacin and Isoniazid
The study was carried out to determine the effect of ginger on the plasma pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin and Isoniazid in a rat model in phase 1. The effects of the herb on the penetration of ciproflacin and Isoniazid into the lung tissues were also determined in phase 2. In phase 1, Albino rats of both sexes (n = 20) were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats per group. Two groups received oral ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg) and isoniazid (15 mg/kg). Other groups were fed with ginger (5 mg/kg) for 10 days followed by the drug administration on the 11th day. Blood samples were collected from each group at 0-, 0.5-, 1-, 2-, 5-, 8-, 12-, and 24-hour intervals. Plasma concentrations of the drugs were determined by a spectrophotometric method and the pharmacokinetic parameters determined using noncompartmental method as implemented in the winNonlin program. In phase 2, where the effects of the herb on the penetration of the drugs were determined, the concentrations of ciprofloxacin and isoniazid attained in the lung fluid of rats in the presence and absence of the herb were compared after a single oral dose of the drugs used in the same dose range as in phase 1. In the first phase, treatment with ginger significantly increased the area under the concentration–time curve of ciprofloxacin, whereas Vz and Cl were decreased. Ginger significantly decreased the area under the concentration–time curve of isoniazid, whereas Vz and Cl were increased. Ginger enhanced the penetration of ciprofloxacin and Isoniazid into the lung tissues; however, their rates of penetration were delayed.