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The prevalence and risk factors for diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation are not well understood. Thus, we sought to identify independent risk factors for the development of diabetes after liver transplantation using currently accepted medical criteria.We studied the prevalence and risk factors in 253 adult recipients transplanted at UCLA between January 1998 and December 2002. Analysis of the retrospective data was performed using demographic, immunosuppression and liver disease variables. Factors found to be significant on a univariate analysis were further studied in a multivariate analysis. There were 158 men and 95 women in our study. The mean age was 51.4 ± 11.0 years. The mean [± standard deviation (SD) pretransplant body mass index was 26.7 (±5.1). Most patients were transplanted for hepatitis C (HCV). The prevalence of diabetes after transplantation was 17.8%. In a multivariate analysis only gender [odds ratio (OR) = 0.37; p = 0.02] was independently predictive of the development of diabetes.This study in a large liver transplant recipient population identifies male gender as an independent risk factor for the development of diabetes. Follow-up studies are needed to assess the impact of diabetes, and its intervention on post-transplant morbidity and mortality.