Continuous intravenous (IV) heparin administered in the acute period after unstable coronary artery disease reduces the likelihood and severity of subsequent ischemic events. However, reactivation of the thrombotic process may occur when heparin therapy is withdrawn. Low-molecular-weight heparin provides more reliable anticoagulation and less need for patient monitoring and dosage adjustment than standard unfractionated heparin (UFH) and therefore is well suited for long-term anticoagulation on an outpatient basis. TIMI 11B is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to compare the strategy of combined short-term and long-term administration of the low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin for unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction versus the standard strategy of UFH administration only during the acute phase. Patients are randomized to receive either enoxaparin (30 mg IV bolus followed by subcutaneous [SC] injections of 1.0 mg/kg every 12 hours) or UFH (70 U/kg bolus followed by an infusion of 15 U/kg per hour, titrated to an activated partial thromboplastin time of 1.5 to 2.5 times control). Infusion of IV UFH or placebo continues for a minimum of 72 hours. SC weight-adjusted enoxaparin or placebo continues until hospital discharge or day 8, whichever comes first, at which time the long-term phase of the study begins. Patients randomized to receive enoxaparin in the acute phase receive fixed-dose SC enoxaparin (60 mg every 12 hours for patients ≥65 kg, 40 mg every 12 hours for patients <65 kg). Patients randomized to receive UFH in the acute phase receive SC placebo injections during the chronic phase. The primary efficacy endpoint is the sum, through day 43, of the occurrence of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction not present at enrollment, or severe recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization. The primary safety endpoint is the occurrence of either major bleeding or other serious adverse events.