Clinical profiles and correlates of mortality in nonagenarians with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement

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Abstract

Background

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is the current standard for nonoperable and high-risk surgical patients with aortic stenosis, including those of advanced age. However, the clinical profiles, procedural characteristics, and outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing TAVR have not been thoroughly reported.

Methods

A total of 654 patients (n = 107 >90 years old and n = 547 <90 years) with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR were included in this analysis. Baseline characteristics, procedural variables, and in-hospital outcomes and complications at 30 days and 12 months were analyzed.

Results

Overall, of the patients included, 46% were high risk and 53% inoperable. Although nonagenarians had a higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score of 9.2 ± 4 (12.1 ± 4 vs 8.6 ± 4, P < .001), other factors were considerably lower in this group: diabetes (22% vs 36%, P = .008), hyperlipidemia (65% vs 83%, P < .001), prior coronary artery bypass (13% vs 39%, P < .001), and mean body mass index (24.5 ± 5 vs 28.1 ± 7 kg/m2, P < .001). The correlates for 1-year mortality in nonagenarians were as follows: ≥moderate aortic insufficiency post-TAVR (hazard ratio [HR] 5.07, 95% CI 1.17-22, P = .03), pacemaker implantation after TAVR (HR 6.87, 95% CI 2.32-20.3, P = .001), and peripheral vascular disease (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.03-5.38, P = .042). Mortality at 30 days (12.1% vs 7.1%, P = .07) and at 1 year (25% vs 21%, P = .35) was similar between groups.

Conclusion

Nonagenarians undergoing TAVR had a healthier clinical profile compared with younger patients. Age alone should not be a discriminatory factor when screening elderly patients with aortic stenosis because even the nonagenarians are doing well when compared with the younger elderly population. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement remains a viable option for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis for the elderly regardless of their age.

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