Shock complicating type A acute aortic dissection: Clinical correlates, management, and outcomes

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Abstract

Aims

Shock is among the most dreaded and common complications of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD). However, clinical correlates, management, and short- and long-term outcomes of TAAAD patients presenting with shock in real-world clinical practice are not known.

Methods and Results

We evaluated 2,704 patients with TAAAD enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection between January 1, 1996, and August 18, 2012. On admission, 407 (15.1%) TAAAD patients presented with shock. Most in-hospital complications (coma, myocardial or mesenteric ischemia or infarction, and cardiac tamponade) were more frequent in shock patients. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in TAAAD patients with than without shock (30.2% vs 23.9%, P = .007), regardless of surgical or medical treatment. Most shock patients underwent surgical repair, with medically managed patients demonstrating older age and more complications at presentation. Estimates using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that most (89%) TAAAD patients with shock discharged alive from the hospital survived 5 years, a rate similar to that of TAAAD patients without shock (82%, P = .609).

Conclusions

Shock occurred in 1 of 7 TAAAD patients and was associated with higher rates of in-hospital adverse events and mortality. However, TAAAD survivors with or without shock showed similar long-term mortality. Successful early and aggressive management of shock in TAAAD patients has the potential for improving long-term survival in this patient population.

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