Impact of AHA's 2007 guideline change on incidence of infective endocarditis in infants and children

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ObjectivesUse a nationally representative sample to assess impacts of new clinical guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) in 2007 for many types of invasive procedures, with recommendations for significant decreases in antimicrobial prophylaxis use.Study designInterrupted time series analyses of pediatric hospitalizations for Infective Endocarditis (IE), using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes, identified IE hospitalizations for patients <18 years old from 2001 to 2012. Changes in IE incidence before and after 2007 AHA guidelines were evaluated, with differences in IE clinical severity assessed using in-hospital mortality and length of stay. Analyses were stratified by pathogen type and age group (0–9 y/o and 10–17 y/o).ResultsWith 3,748 patients in the study, we observed rising trends in IE incidence, but no significant difference between pre- and post-guideline. There was a significant trend increase for IE due to viridans group streptococci (VGS) for ages >10 years old, comparing pre-guideline to post-guideline periods, but not in children 0–9 years of age. Neither in-hospital mortality nor length of stay changed significantly during study.ConclusionsThe data did not demonstrate an impact of the 2007 guideline changes on overall incidence of pediatric IE. However, a significant increase in disease incidence trend due to VGS was observed for the 10–17 year-old group, compared pre- and post-guideline.

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