Left ventricular ejection fraction reassessment post–myocardial infarction: Current clinical practice and determinants of adverse remodeling

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Abstract

Background:

Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction may be sustained or aggravated during the convalescent months following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and is difficult to predict. We sought to determine current practice patterns of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) reassessment during the months following MI and evaluate the predictors and clinical significance of LVEF change in a prospective post-MI patient cohort.

Methods:

Patients with an acute MI between June 2010 and August 2014 were identified using the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry. Patients with initial LV dysfunction (LVEF <40% with first MI or <45% with multiple MI events) underwent a protocol-driven repeat LVEF assessment in follow-up if routine LVEF reassessment was not performed.

Results:

Of 5,964 MI patients, follow-up LVEF assessments were attained for 442 of the 695 patients who had significant LV dysfunction. A sizable proportion (25%) had either no increase or a decline in LVEF. Adverse remodeling was associated with an anterior MI location, a greater peak serum troponin T, and a higher baseline LVEF at time of MI. Adverse LV remodeling conferred a 3-fold risk of death (hazard ratio 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.7, P = .001) adjusted for baseline LVEF, anterior MI location, and medication use.

Conclusions:

Current practice of LVEF reassessment during the convalescent months post-MI is suboptimal despite a sizeable proportion of patients that undergo adverse LV remodeling. Targeting processes affecting low rates of LVEF reassessment may reduce missed care opportunities and ensure that patients consistently receive appropriate evidence-based and guideline-recommended care.

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