Predictors of intra-aortic balloon pump hemodynamic failure in non-acute myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock

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Abstract

Objectives:

To characterize patient profile and hemodynamic profile of those undergoing intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) for cardiogenic shock and define predictors of hemodynamic failure of IABP support.

Background:

Clinical characteristics of IABP support in cardiogenic shock not related to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain poorly characterized.

Methods:

We retrospectively studied a cohort of 74 patients from 2010 to 2015 who underwent IABP insertion for cardiogenic shock complicating acute decompensated heart failure not due to AMI.

Results:

In the overall cohort, which consisted primarily of patients with chronic systolic heart failure (89%), IABP significantly augmented cardiac index and lowered systemic vascular resistance (P < .05). Despite this improvement, 28% of these patients died (24%) or require urgent escalation in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) (4%). Multivariable regression revealed that baseline left ventricular cardiac power index (LVCPI), a measure of LV power output derived from cardiac index and mean arterial pressure (P = .01), and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy (P = .003) were significantly associated with the composite adverse-event endpoint of death or urgent MCS escalation. An IABP Failure risk score using baseline LVCPI <0.28 W/m2 and ischemic history predicted 28-day adverse events with excellent discrimination.

Conclusion:

Despite hemodynamic improvements with IABP support, patients with non-AMI cardiogenic shock still suffer poor outcomes. Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and low LVPCI fared significantly worse. These patients may warrant closer observation or earlier consideration of more advanced hemodynamic support.

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