A physiologically-based early warning score for ward patients: the association between score and outcome*
We analysed the physiological values and early warning score obtained from 1047 ward patients assessed by an intensive care outreach service. Patients were either referred directly from the wards (n = 245, 23.4%) or were routine critical care follow-ups. Decisions were made to admit 135 patients (12.9%) to a critical care area and limit treatment in another 78 (7.4%). An increasing number of physiological abnormalities was associated with higher hospital mortality (p < 0.0001) ranging from 4.0% with no abnormalities to 51.9% with five or more. An increasing early warning score was associated with more intervention (p < 0.0001) and higher hospital mortality (p < 0.0001). For patients with scores above one (n = 660), decisions to admit to a critical care area or limit treatment were taken in 200 (30.3%). Scores of all physiological variables except temperature contributed to the need for intervention and all variables except temperature and heart rate were associated with hospital mortality.