We investigated the effects of 10 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing laparoscopic lower abdominal surgery in the 30° Trendelenburg position during desflurane anaesthesia. Twenty-six patients were enrolled in this study. After anaesthesia induction, pneumoperitoneum was applied in Trendelenburg position. Twenty minutes later, positive end-expiratory pressure was applied. There was no change in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (p = 0.376). Cerebral perfusion pressure decreased significantly over time (p < 0.001) and positive end-expiratory pressure caused a further decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure (p = 0.036). The application of 10 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure during pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position preserved regional cerebral oxygen saturation, but cerebral perfusion pressure decreased significantly due to its secondary haemodynamic effects.