Index to ring digit ratio in Saudi Arabia at Almadinah Almonawarah province: a direct and indirect measurement study

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The digit ratio, or the relative lengths, of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) shows a sex difference, with males tending to have lower values in comparison with females. This sex differences arises early in the fetus and may result from the effects of prenatal testosterone and estrogen on the relative growth rate of the 2nd and 4th digits. This study aimed to estimate finger lengths and the 2D:4D ratios for the first time in Saudi Arabian subjects using direct and indirect measurements, and to evaluate the correlations between both indirect and direct 2D:4D with adult testosterone and various sexually dimorphic physical traits. The results revealed the following: (i) mean 2D:4D in Saudi Arabian samples varied from 0.96 to 0.99; (ii) mean 2D:4D was lower for indirect compared to direct 2D:4D; (iii) sex differences in indirect 2D:4D were higher than in direct 2D:4D measurements; (iv) there were no significant correlations between indirect or direct 2D:4D and testosterone level; (v) there were four significant correlations between direct 2D:4D and body size traits but no significant correlations between indirect 2D:4D and body size.

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