In a retrospective study, we calculated the treatment and follow-up costs of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The total treatment programme consisted of eight phases: VAD or VAMP chemotherapy, follow-up I, high-dose melphalan followed by transplantation of whole blood, follow-up II, collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells by leukapheresis, follow-up III, high-dose chemotherapy (busulfan/cyclophosphamide) followed by reinfusion of peripheral stem cells and follow-up IV (until 3 months from hospital discharge after peripheral stem cell transplantation). For each phase the average costs were calculated for all patients who were on treatment/follow-up in each particular phase. The total average cumulative costs of treatment and follow-up of all patients amounted to US$49 850. Considering only the patients who completed the total treatment programme as it was scheduled, the average total treatment and follow-up costs were US$44 800. The average costs of treatment and follow-up of patients who did not complete the programme as it was scheduled (patients who died, patients who were withdrawn from treatment and patients who received additional treatment) were US$57 025.