Simultaneous targeting of PI3K and mTOR with NVP-BGT226 is highly effective in multiple myeloma

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Abstract

Multiple myeloma is still uncurable. Myeloma cells become resistant to common drugs and patients eventually die of tumour progression. Therefore, new targets and drugs are urgently needed. NVP-BGT226 is a novel, orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin. Here, we show that NVP-BGT226 inhibits growth in common myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells at nanomolar concentrations in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Western blots for the detection of caspase 3 cleavage and annexin-V–fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assays revealed induction of apoptosis in common myeloma cells lines. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by upregulation of proapoptotic Bim and a moderate upregulation of Mcl-1 and Bad and a downregulation of Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-Xl. Inhibition of cell growth was mainly due to inhibition of myeloma cell proliferation, as shown by the 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, which was due to downregulation of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, pRb and cdc25a. NVP-BGT226 inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), P70S6k and 4E-BP-1 in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that the stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor 1, interleukin-6 and conditioned medium of HS-5 stromal cells on myeloma cell growth is completely abrogated by NVP-BGT226. Overall, inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin by NVP-BGT226 is highly effective, and NVP-BGT226 represents a potential new candidate for targeted therapy in multiple myeloma.

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