Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of cancer patients. Initiation of anticoagulant treatment is of vital importance once a diagnosis of VTE has been established. Unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) have been the mainstay for in-hospital-based prophylaxis, both postsurgically and on medicine floors, and for the acute management of VTE. The current international guidelines, including American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American College of Chest Physicians, the European Society of Medical Oncology, and the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, recommend the use of LMWH monotherapy for the long-term management of cancer patients with established acute symptomatic VTE. Although LMWHs have become the preferred treatment for patients with cancer, problems with its use have prompted clinicians to seek newer antithrombotic agents.