As a mitochondrial membrane protein, globular C1q receptor (gC1qR) can mediate a variety of biological responses. Our study aims to investigate the role of gC1qR in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells and to elucidate its potential molecular mechanism. The level of gC1qR was examined using real-time PCR and western blot analyses. Human ovarian cancer cells viability, migration, and proliferation were detected using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay, the transwell assay, and 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA (3H-TdR) assay, respectively. Apoptosis in cells was assessed using flow cytometric analysis. The intracellular reactive oxygen species was estimated by the fluorescence of H2DCFDA and the mitochondrial membrane potential was tested using a JC-1 probe. The expression of the gC1qR gene decreased significantly in human ovarian cancer tissues relative to the surrounding non-neoplastic ovarian tissues. Cells treated with paclitaxel showed increased gC1qR gene expression, cell apoptosis, and mitochondria dysfunction, and the effects on these cells could be abrogated by the addition of gC1qR small-interfering RNA or α-lipoic acid that was used to protect the mitochondria function. In summary, these data support a mechanism that gC1qR-induced mitochondria dysfunction was involved in the paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.