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Infants with congenital or posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus may require a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt to divert the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, thus preventing increase in intracranial pressure. Knowledge on various aspects of caring for a child with a VP shunt will enable new and experienced nurses to better care for these infants and equip parents for ongoing care at home.To review the nurses' role in care of infants with hydrocephalus, care after VP shunt placement, prevention of complications, and parental preparation for home care.A literature review involving electronic databases, such as CINAHL and MEDLINE, Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, and resources from the Web sites of the National Hydrocephalus Foundation and Hydrocephalus Association, was performed to gather evidence for current practice information.Vigilant care can help with early identification of potential complications. The younger the infant at VP shunt placement, the higher the occurrence of complications. All neonatal intensive care unit nurses must be equipped with knowledge and skills to care for infants with hydrocephalus and those who undergo VP shunt placement. Monitoring for early signs of increased intracranial pressure can facilitate timely diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention. Equipping families will be helpful in early identification and timely management of shunt failure. Research on infants with VP shunt placement is essential to develop appropriate guidelines and explore experiences of families to identify caregiver burden and improve parental preparation.