The study was aimed to investigate the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) treatment on reproductive glands in sexually mature male rabbits. A total 36 adult male rabbits were randomly distributed to six equal groups. The first control group (CON), the second treated with low-dose TP (TPL), the third treated with high-dose TP (TPH), the fourth treated with low-dose hCG (CGL), the fifth treated with medium-dose hCG (CGM) and sixth treated with high-dose hCG (CGH). At the 16th post-treatment week, the animals were sacrificed, and the testes and accessory sex glands dissected, weighted and stored at −20 °C until assay. Testosterone propionate treatment in both doses resulted in reduction (P < 0.01) in testicular weight and increase (P < 0.01) in weight of vesicular gland, paraprostate and proprostate glands. High-dose TP increased the weight of prostate and bulbouretheral gland (BUG). Testosterone propionate increased total androgen (P < 0.01) with Testosterone (T) predominating in serum, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) predominating in testes and most accessory sex glands. High dose of hCG increased the weight of proprostate and paraprostate glands. Androgen level in serum, testes and accessory sex glands increased (P < 0.01) after hCG treatment.