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Propofol was first used to induce and maintain anaesthesia in the early 1980s. Several infusion regimens were described, some based on pharmacokinetic predictions. Advances in computing technology subsequently have allowed the development of portable target controlled infusion devices, with drugs delivered to achieve specific predicted target blood propofol concentrations. Assessments of propofol target controlled infusion systems in clinical practice and comparisons of 'Diprifusor' target controlled infusion systems with manual infusion are reviewed here.