Neomycin and polymyxin B produce neuromuscular blocks with distinct features by different mechanisms of action. In eight anesthetized cats the authors studied their interaction by examining the neuromuscular block produced by an equipotent mixture. Values of onset, potency, dose-response relations, duration and reversibility of block, the train-of-four and tetanic responses during block, the frequency-block relationships, and the posttetanic twitch behavior were well approximated by averaging the corresponding values previously reported for each antibiotic. Edrophonium, 0.2 mg/kg, reversed the block by 8 to 35 per cent. 4-Aminopyridine, 0.6 mg/kg, completely reversed the block and caused a long-lasting overshoot of the twitch response. The authors conclude that neomycin and polymyxin B are additive in neuromuscular effects, not only in terms of potency and duration, but also in terms of the characteristics of the blocks produced.